Some vocabulary for use in the examples:
glos - voice
čaj - tea
meč - sword
nož - knife
latiš - latvian
ruka - hand, arm
noč - night
rož - rye
miš - mouse
more - sea
jezero - lake
Nouns and Genders
In Slovianski, nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. The basic principle behind noun gender is that gender is mostly determined by the ending of the noun.
glos, čaj, meč, nož, latiš
-0, -j, -č*, -ž*, -š*
ruka, noč, rož, miš
-a, -č*, -ž*, -š*
*These endings are ambiguous
Nouns and Number
Making a plural in Slovianski doesn't require knowing the gender of the noun, only its ending. But in some cases it's useful to relate the two.
Neuter ending in -e
more - mor'a
Neuter ending in -o
jezero - jezera
Masculine and feminine not ending in -e or -o
glos - glosi, ruka - ruki
Some nouns are always singular or plural. Uncountable nouns are usually only singular, and some things that come in pairs are only plural.
voda (singulare tantum - only singular)
okul'ari (plurale tantum - only plural)
Adjectives and Number
Adjectives also have number based on the noun they modify.
dobri meč -i
dobra noč -a
dobro more -o
Plural (all genders):
dobre meči -e
dobre noči -e
dobre mor'a -e
Vocabulary for this lesson
avtomobil' - car
žitije - life
First person singular: ja - I
First person plural: mi - we
Second person singular: ti - you (thou)
Second person plural: vi - you (ya'll)
Third person singular masculine: on - he
Third person singular feminine: ona - she
Third person singular neuter: ono - it
Third person plural: oni - they
vi can be used to show respect to one person when used instead of ti
First person singular: moj - my
First person plural: naš - ours
Second person singular: tvoj - yours (thy)
Second person plural: vaš - yours
Third person singular masculine: jego - his
Third person singular feminine: jej - her
Third person singular neuter: jego - its
Third person plural: ih - theirs
Note that these have different gender forms depending on what gender of the noun
moj avtomobil' - my car
moja žena - my wife
moje žitije - my life
Since natural Slavic languages disagree on this, in Slovianski all things that are close will have a pronoun that starts with the word "tut" and all things that are far will start with the word "tam". The demonstrative pronoun of the masculine gender is "tot", feminine gender is "ta", neuter gender is "to". So the six permutations are:
tamtot, tamta, tamto - that
tuttot, tutta, tutto - this
Slovianski pronouns are divided into two classes: the k class and the č class. K class corresponds to people, while the č class corresponds to things.
kto - who
kogo - whom
ktori - which
čo - what
čogo - of what
Lesson 3. Verbs
Vocabulary for this lesson
igrat' - to play
viigrat' - to win
Verbs in Slovianski have a tense and aspect. There are three tenses in Slovianski - past, present, future. There are two aspects - perfective and imperfective. There are also two moods - imperative and subjunctive.
The aspect helps determine whether the action was completed or finished. The perfective aspect means the action has been in some way ended, while the imperfective aspect means the action is continuing or repeating. The aspect of a verb is lexical, there is no one way to determine the aspect of some verb.
Tenses represent when actions occur. The tense and the aspect of the verb are closely related.
An action that will continue or repeat in the future. It can be potentially translated into two different English sentences depending on which meaning is intended.
Ja budu igrat' - I will play (I will be playing)
budu is a helping verb, a future tense of the verb to be (bit'), it conjugates based on the person and number:
Oni budut igrat' - they will play (they will be playing)
An action that will end or finish at some time in the future.
Ja viigraju - I will win
The helping verb bit' is not necessary here due to the aspect of the verb
An action that is happening right now or occurs habitually in the present. This sentence can be translated into two English sentences based on the meaning.
Ja igraju - I play (I am playing)
An action that ended at some time in the past.
Ja viigral - I won (I have won)
An action that was continually occuring or repeatedly occuring in the past.
Ja igral - I played (I have played)